Differences between Cortisol and Cortisone and how it turns off or turns on body fat oxidation; catecholamines (noradrenaline/epinephrine)?
 ”…Hydrocortisone and cortisone are identical short-acting corticosteroids. However, they are not the same. Cortisone is an inactive prodrug that is converted into hydrocortisone, or cortisol, in the liver. Hydrocortisone works as a topical medication whereas cortisone is not as effective as a topical treatment. …” …More
 ”…Only a small percentage of circulating cortisol is biologically active (free), with the majority of cortisol inactive (protein bound). As plasma cortisol values increase, free cortisol (ie, unconjugated cortisol or hydrocortisone) increases and is filtered through the glomerulus. …” …More
 What is free Cortisol: When the adrenal glands make cortisol, it can circulate bound up to its carrier protein (almost like a person riding on a bus) or it can circulate free (not on the bus). The most common carrier protein is called Cortisol Binding Globulin (CBG) while it binds to a lesser extent to Albumin. When a hormone is bound to its carrier protein, it does not have the ability to act. Only once it unbinds (gets off the bus) and becomes ‘free’ is it able to be active in the body. Free cortisol makes up only about 1% of the overall cortisol produced, but it is an important fraction because it is the biologically active fraction.
Cortisol typically rises quickly upon waking and then slowly drops throughout the day. The measurements of free cortisol (and to a lesser extent free cortisone) are used to assess this up-and-down pattern. While free cortisol is an important measurement, it does not necessarily reflect overall production of cortisol. The metabolites of cortisol are a better marker of cortisol production. …More
 What is Metabolized Cortisol? Metabolized cortisol is the sum of a-tetrahydrocortisol (aTHF), b-tetrahydrocortisol (bTHF), and b-tetrahydrocortisone (bTHE). They are a good indication of the total cortisol output from the adrenal gland or clearance out the body. You’ll notice these numbers are much larger than that of free cortisol because they represent a much larger fraction of the overall cortisol produced. Total adrenal gland output is important to know in comparison to the free cortisol levels. For example, if someone has low free cortisol, this does not necessarily mean their adrenal glands are not producing very much cortisol. It only means their free cortisol is low. They may have normal or high levels of total (metabolized) cortisol which is often addressed/treated differently than if someone had low free cortisol and low total (metabolized) cortisol. When free cortisol is lower (in a relative sense) than metabolized cortisol, it implies that cortisol clearance/metabolism may be higher than normal. In the following example the patient shows low levels of free cortisol even though production of cortisol is quite high (implying high cortisol metabolism/clearance).
In the above example, cortisol metabolism seems to be up-regulated. In the following example, the opposite may be true. …More
 What Leads to more Cortisol or more Cortisone?
Hypothyroidism, licorice root extract, grapefruit, inflammation, visceral obesity (belly fat), high insulin, and excess sodium can make a person lean more towards the active form cortisol.
Hyperthyroidism, human growth hormone, ketoconazole, quality sleep, magnolia, scutellaria, zizyphus, testosterone, and citrus peel extract influence the deactivation of cortisol and lead to a cortisone preference. …More