The cause is not excess consumption of calories, it is excess consumption of carbohydrate, since carbohydrates are nothing more than glucose molecules arranged in various ways. (If the carbohydrate is indigestible, we call it fibre.) Eating carbohydrate raises serum glucose, and the rise in glucose past a certain point is dangerous, possibly even fatal, to the body. Thus, the pancreas secretes insulin to drive the excess glucose out of the blood stream.
But it is not only hyperglycaemia that damages the body, hyperinsulinaemia does also. Hyperinsulinaemia results from insulin-resistance, and it is implicated in the various forms of metabolic dysfunction: hypertension, elevated heart rate, atherosclerosis, Type II diabetes, gout, Alzheimer’s disease, breast cancer (and other cancers, as well), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), impotence (erectile dysfunction), visceral fat accumulation, and many other conditions. That is why I am blaming excess insulin. As your citation points out, an acute insulin rise can be helpful, but chronic hyperinsulinaemia interferes with NO production and thus causes hypertension (there are other factors at work that also cause arterial damage on a high-carb diet).
ChatGPT is only as good as the sources it was trained on, and those were selected by biased human beings. As with any human being, you have to ask the AI to show its sources, too, and then you can trace back the information to the studies that provided it. In a lot of cases, these studies are flawed in one way or another.
Note: protein has an effect on insulin secretion that is about half the effect of glucose (carbohydrate), but the result depends on whether the protein was consumed as part of a high-carb or a low-carb diet. If the former, the insulin response to protein is unchecked resulting in an even higher insulin response. In the context of the latter, however, the increase in insulin is matched by an increase in glucagon secretion, leaving the metabolic state of the body unchanged. (Insulin and glucagon regulate each other.)
Fat has no effect on insulin secretion, beyond the bare minimum needed for us to live.