Should dietary guidelines recommend low red meat intake? Short answer: no!


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #21
  • Kapoor, A., M. Baig, S. A. Tunio, A. S. Memon, and H. Karmani. 2017. Neuropsychiatric and neurological problems among vitamin B12 deficient young vegetarians. Neurosciences 22 (3):228–32. doi: 10.17712/nsj.2017.3.20160445.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Key, T. J., P. N. Appleby, E. A. Spencer, R. C. Travis, A. W. Roddam, and N. E. Allen. 2009. Mortality in british vegetarians: results from the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89 (5):1613S–9S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736L.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Kim, Y., and Y. Je. 2018. Meat consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome: results from the korean population and a Meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutrients 10 (4):390. doi: 10.3390/nu10040390.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Kim, S., M. F. Fenech, and P.-J R. Kim. 2018. Nutritionally recommended food for semi- to strict vegetarian diets based on large-scale nutrient composition data. Scientific Reports 8 (1):4344. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22691-1.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Klurfeld, D. M. 2015. Research gaps in evaluating the relationship of meat and health. Meat Science 109:86–95. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.05.022.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Klurfeld, D. M. 2018. What is the role of meat in a healthy diet?. Animal Frontiers 8 (3):5–10. doi: 10.1093/af/vfy009.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Kocaoglu, C., F. Akin, H. Caksen, S. B. Böke, S. Arslan, and S. Aygün. 2014. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 32(2):367–71.

[PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Koebnick, Corinna, Ingrid Hoffmann, Pieter C. Dagnelie, Ulrike A. Heins, Sunitha N. Wickramasinghe, Indrika D. Ratnayaka, Sindy Gruendel, Jan Lindemans, and Claus Leitzmann. 2004. Long-term ovo-lacto vegetarian diet impairs vitamin B-12 status in pregnant women. The Journal of Nutrition 134 (12):3319–26. doi: 10.1093/jn/134.12.3319.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Koeth, Robert A., Zeneng Wang, Bruce S. Levison, Jennifer A. Buffa, Elin Org, Brendan T. Sheehy, Earl B. Britt, Xiaoming Fu, Yuping Wu, Lin Li., et al. 2013. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nature Medicine 19 (5):576–85. doi: 10.1038/nm.3145.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M., K. Bucková, I. Klimes, and E. Seboková. 2008. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 47:183–5.

[Crossref]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Krauss, A. 2018. Why all randomised controlled trials produce biased results. Annals of Medicine 50 (4):312–22. doi: 10.1080/07853890.2018.1453233.

[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Kristensen, Nadja B., Mia L. Madsen, Tue H. Hansen, Kristine H. Allin, Camilla Hoppe, Sisse Fagt, Mia S. Lausten, Rikke J. Gøbel, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen., et al. 2015. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in danish vegans. Nutrition Journal 14 (1):115. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0103-3.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Kruger, C., and Y. Zhou. 2018. Red meat and Colon cancer: a review of mechanistic evidence for heme in the context of risk assessment methodology. Food and Chemical Toxicology 118:131–53. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.04.048.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Kwok, C. S., S. Umar, P. K. Myint, M. A. Mamas, and Y. K. Loke. 2014. Vegetarian diet, seventh day adventists and risk of cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Cardiology 176 (3):680–6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.07.080.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Laidlaw, S. A., T. D. Shultz, J. T. Cecchino, and J. D. Kopple. 1988. Plasma and urine taurine levels in vegans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47 (4):660–3. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/47.4.660.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Larsson, C. L., and G. K. Johansson. 2002. Dietary intake and nutritional status of young vegans and omnivores in Sweden. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76 (1):100–6. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/76.1.100.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Larsson, S. C., and N. Orsini. 2014. Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology 179 (3):282–9. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt261.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Lee, Jung Eun., Dale F. McLerran, Betsy Rolland, Yu Chen, Eric J. Grant, Rajesh Vedanthan, Manami Inoue, Shoichiro Tsugane, Yu-Tang Gao, Ichiro Tsuji., et al. 2013. Meat intake and cause-specific mortality: a pooled analysis of asian prospective cohort studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98 (4):1032–41. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.062638.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

[Google Scholar]

  • Leroy, F. 2019. Meat as a pharmakon: an exploration of the biosocial complexities of meat consumption. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 87:409–46.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Leroy, F., M. Brengman, W. Ryckbosch, and P. Scholliers. 2018. Meat in the post-truth era: mass media discourses on health and disease in the attention economy. Appetite 125:345–55. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.028.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Leroy, Frédéric, Teresa Aymerich, Marie-Christine Champomier-Vergès, Luca Cocolin, Luc De Vuyst, Mónica Flores, Françoise Leroi, Sabine Leroy, Régine Talon, Rudi F. Vogel., et al. 2018. Fermented meats (and the symptomatic case of the flemish food pyramid): are we heading towards the vilification of a valuable food group?. International Journal of Food Microbiology 274:67–70. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2018.02.006.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Leung, A. M., A. Lamar, X. He, L. E. Braverman, and E. N. Pearce. 2011. Iodine status and thyroid function of boston-area vegetarians and vegans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96 (8):e1303–7. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-0256.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Licht, D. J., G. T. Berry, D. G. Brooks, and D. P. Younkin. 2001. Reversible subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in a 14-year-old due to a strict vegan diet. Clinical Pediatrics 40 (7):413–5. doi: 10.1177/000992280104000710.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Lippi, G., C. Mattiuzzi, and F. Sanchis-Gomar. 2015. Red meat consumption and ischemic heart disease. A systematic literature review. Meat Science 108:32–6. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.05.019.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #22
  • Louwman, Marieke W. J., Marijke van Dusseldorp, Fons J. R. van de Vijver, Chris M. G. Thomas, Jørn Schneede, Per M. Ueland, Helga Refsum, and Wija A. van Staveren. 2000. Signs of impaired cognitive function in adolescents with marginal cobalamin status. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72 (3):762–9. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/72.3.762.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Mann, N., A. Sinclair, M. Pille, L. Johnson, G. Warrick, E. Reder, and R. Lorenz. 1997. The effect of short-term diets rich in fish, red meat, or white meat on thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis in humans. Lipids 32 (6):635–44. doi: 10.1007/s11745-997-0081-5.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Matta, Joane, Sébastien Czernichow, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Nicolas Hoertel, Frédéric Limosin, Marcel Goldberg, Marie Zins, and Cedric Lemogne. 2018. Depressive symptoms and vegetarian diets: results from the constances cohort. Nutrients 10 (11):1695. doi: 10.3390/nu10111695.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Mayes, C. R., and D. B. Thompson. 2015. What should we eat? biopolitics, ethics, and nutritional scientism. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):587–99. doi: 10.1007/s11673-015-9670-4.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • McAfee, A. J., E. M. McSorley, G. J. Cuskelly, B. W. Moss, J. M. Wallace, M. P. Bonham, and A. M. Fearon. 2010. Red meat consumption: an overview of the risks and benefits. Meat Science 84 (1):1–13. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.08.029.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • McNeill, S. H. 2014. Inclusion of red meat in healthful dietary patterns. Meat Science 98 (3):452–60. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.06.028.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Milea, D., N. Cassoux, and P. LeHoang. 2000. Blindness in a strict vegan. The New England Journal of Medicine 342 (12):897–8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200003233421217.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Milton, K. 2003. The critical role played by animal source foods in human (Homo) evolution. The Journal of Nutrition 133 (11 Suppl 2):3886S–92S. doi: 10.1093/jn/133.11.3886S.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Montonen, J., H. Boeing, A. Fritsche, E. Schleicher, H.-G. Joost, M. B. Schulze, A. Steffen, and T. Pischon. 2013. Consumption of red meat and whole-grain bread in relation to biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. European Journal of Nutrition 52 (1):337–45. doi: 10.1007/s00394-012-0340-6.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Morabia, A. 2008. Joseph goldberger’s research on the prevention of pellagra. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 101 (11):566–8. doi: 10.1258/jrsm.2008.08k010.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Naik, S., N. Mahalle, and V. Bhide. 2018. Identification of vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarian indians. The British Journal of Nutrition 119 (6):629–35. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518000090.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Neumann, C. G., S. P. Murphy, C. Gewa, M. Grillenberger, and N. O. Bwibo. 2007. Meat supplementation improves growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes in Kenyan children. The Journal of Nutrition 137 (4):1119–23. doi: 10.1093/jn/137.4.1119.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Nezlek, J. B., C. A. Forestell, and D. B. Newman. 2018. Relationships between vegetarian dietary habits and daily well-being. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 57 (5):425–38. doi: 10.1080/03670244.2018.1536657.

[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Ng, E., and M. Neff. 2018. Recognising the return of nutritional deficiencies: a modern pellagra puzzle. BMJ Case Reports 11 (1):e227454. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2018-227454.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

[Google Scholar]

  • Obersby, D., D. C. Chappell, A. Dunnett, and A. A. Tsiami. 2013. Plasma total homocysteine status of vegetarians compared with omnivores: a systematic review and Meta-analysis. British Journal of Nutrition 109 (5):785–94. doi: 10.1017/S000711451200520X.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • O’Connor, L. E., J. E. Kim, and W. W. Campbell. 2017. Total red meat intake of ≥0.5 servings/d does not negatively influence cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systemically searched meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 105(1):57–69. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.142521.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • O’Gorman, P., D. Holmes, A. V. Ramanan, B. Bose-Haider, M. J. Lewis, and A. Will. 2002. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in an adolescent white boy. Journal of Clinical Pathology 55(6):475–6. doi: 10.1136/jcp.55.6.475.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Oostindjer, Marije, Jan Alexander, Gro V. Amdam, Grethe Andersen, Nathan S. Bryan, Duan Chen, Denis E. Corpet, Stefaan De Smet, Lars Ove Dragsted, Anna Haug., et al. 2014. The role of red and processed meat in colorectal cancer development: a perspective. Meat Science 97 (4):583–96. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.02.011.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Pan, A., Q. Sun, A. M. Bernstein, M. B. Schulze, J. E. Manson, W. C. Willett, and F. B. Hu. 2011. Red meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 94 (4):1088–96. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.018978.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Pan, A., Q. Sun, A. M. Bernstein, M. B. Schulze, J. E. Manson, M. J. Stampfer., et al. 2012. Red meat consumption and mortality: results from 2 prospective cohort studies. Archives of Internal Medicine 172:555–63. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.2287.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Pannemans, D. L., A. J. Wagenmakers, K. R. Westerterp, G. Schaafsma, and D. Halliday. 1998. Effect of protein source and quantity on protein metabolism in elderly women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68 (6):1228–35. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/68.6.1228.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Pawlak, R. 2015. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians? American Journal of Preventive Medicine 48 (6):e11–26. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.009.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Pawlak, Roman, Scott James Parrott, Sudha Raj, Diana Cullum-Dugan, and Debbie Lucus. 2013. How prevalent is vitamin B12 deficiency among vegetarians? Nutrition Reviews 71 (2):110–7. doi: 10.1111/nure.12001.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Pawlak, R., S. E. Lester, and T. Babatunde. 2014. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68 (5):541–8. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.46.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #23
  • Pereira, P. M., and A. F. Vicente. 2013. Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet. Meat Science 93 (3):586–92. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.09.018.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Phillips, S. M. 2012. Nutrient-rich meat proteins in offsetting age-related muscle loss. Meat Science 92 (3):174–8. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.04.027.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Rae, C., A. L. Digney, S. R. McEwan, and T. C. Bates. 2003. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 270 (1529):2147–50. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2003.2492.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

[Google Scholar]

[Google Scholar]

  • Rogers, L. M., E. Boy, J. W. Miller, R. Green, J. C. Sabel, and L. H. Allen. 2003. High prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in guatemalan schoolchildren: associations with low plasma holotranscobalamin II and elevated serum methylmalonic acid and plasma homocysteine concentrations. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77 (2):433–40. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/77.2.433.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Rondanelli, M., S. Perna, M. A. Faliva, G. Peroni, V. Infantino, and R. Pozzi. 2015. Novel insights on intake of meat and prevention of sarcopenia: all reasons for an adequate consumption. Nutricion Hospitalaria 32 (5):2136–14. 23.

[PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Rosell, M. S., Z. Lloyd-Wright, P. N. Appleby, T. A. Sanders, N. E. Allen, and T. J. Key. 2005. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in british meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82 (2):327–34. doi: 10.1093/ajcn.82.2.327.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Samulak, J. J., A. K. Sawicka, D. Hartmane, S. Grinberga, O. Pugovics, W. Lysiak-Szydlowska, and R. A. Olek. 2019. L-Carnitine supplementation increases trimethylamine-N-oxide but not markers of atherosclerosis in healthy aged women. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 74 (1):11–7. doi: 10.1159/000495037.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Satija, Ambika, Shilpa N. Bhupathiraju, Eric B. Rimm, Donna Spiegelman, Stephanie E. Chiuve, Lea Borgi, Walter C. Willett, JoAnn E. Manson, Qi Sun, Frank B. Hu., et al. 2016. Plant-based dietary patterns and incidence of type 2 diabetes in US men and women: results from three prospective cohort studies. PLOS Medicine 13 (6):e1002039. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002039.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Schatzkin, Arthur, Victor Kipnis, Raymond J. Carroll, Douglas Midthune, Amy F. Subar, Sheila Bingham, Dale A. Schoeller, Richard P. Troiano, and Laurence S. Freedman. 2003. A comparison of a food frequency questionnaire with a 24-hour recall for use in an epidemiological cohort study: results from the biomarker-based observing protein and energy nutrition (OPEN) study. International Journal of Epidemiology 32 (6):1054–62. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyg264.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Schjønsby, H. 1989. Vitamin B12 absorption and malabsorption. Gut 30 (12):1686–91. doi: 10.1136/gut.30.12.1686.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Schoenfeld, J. D., and J. P. A. Ioannidis. 2013. Is everything we eat associated with cancer? a systematic cookbook review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 97 (1):127–34. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.047142.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Schultz, T. D., and J. E. Leklem. 1983. Selenium status of vegetarians, nonvegetarians, and hormone-dependent cancer subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 37:114–8. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/37.1.114.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Schüpbach, R., R. Wegmüller, C. Berguerand, M. Bui, and I. Herter-Aeberli. 2017. Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland. European Journal of Nutrition 56 (1):283–93. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-1079-7.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Shapiro, S. 2004. Looking to the 21st century: have we learned from our mistakes, or are we doomed to compound them?. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 13 (4):257–65. doi: 10.1002/pds.903.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Shibata, H. 2001. Nutritional factors on longevity and quality of life in Japan. Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 5 (2):97–102.

[PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Shinwell, E. D., and R. Gorodischer. 1982. Totally vegetarian diets and infant nutrition. Pediatrics 70 (4):582–6.

[PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Siepmann, T., J. Roofeh, F. W. Kiefer, and D. G. Edelson. 2011. Hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction associated with soy product consumption. Nutrition 27 (7-8):859–62.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Sinha, R., A. J. Cross, B. I. Graubard, M. F. Leitzmann, and A. Schatzkin. 2009. Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Archives of Internal Medicine 169 (6):562–71. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.6.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Specker, B. L., D. Miller, E. J. Norman, H. Greene, and K. C. Hayes. 1988. Increased urinary methylmalonic acid excretion in breast-fed infants of vegetarian mothers and identification of an acceptable dietary source of vitamin B-12. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47 (1):89–92. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/47.1.89.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Specker, B. L., A. Black, L. Allen, and F. Morrow. 1990. Vitamin B-12: low milk concentrations are related to low serum concentrations in vegetarian women and to methylmalonic aciduria in their infants. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52 (6):1073–6. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/52.6.1073.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Springmann, Marco, Daniel Mason-D’Croz, Sherman Robinson, Keith Wiebe, H. Charles J. Godfray, Mike Rayner, and Peter Scarborough. 2018. Health-motivated taxes on red and processed meat: a modelling study on optimal tax levels and associated health impacts. PLOS ONE 13 (11):e0204139. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204139.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Stark, A. H., R. Reifen, and M. A. Crawford. 2016. Past and present insights on alpha-linolenic acid and the omega-3 fatty acid family. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 56 (14):2261–7. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2013.828678

[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Swinburn, Boyd A., Vivica I. Kraak, Steven Allender, Vincent J. Atkins, Phillip I. Baker, Jessica R. Bogard, Hannah Brinsden, Alejandro Calvillo, Olivier De Schutter, Raji Devarajan., et al. 2019. The global syndemic of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change: the Lancet Commission report. Lancet 393 (10173):791–846. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32822-8.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #24
  • Tang, M., and N. F. Krebs. 2014. High protein intake from meats as complementary food increases growth but not adiposity in breastfed infants: a randomized trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (5):1322–8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.088807.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Torres, Susan J., Sian Robinson, Liliana Orellana, Stella L. O’Connell, Carley A. Grimes, Niamh L. Mundell, David W. Dunstan, Caryl A. Nowson, and Robin M. Daly. 2017. Effects of progressive resistance training combined with a protein-enriched lean red meat diet on health-related quality of life in elderly women: secondary analysis of a 4-month cluster randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Nutrition 117 (11):1550–9. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517001507.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Truswell, A. S. 2009. Problems with red meat in the WCRF2. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89 (4):1274–5. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27201.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Tur, J. A., M. M. Bibiloni, A. Sureda, and A. Pons. 2012. Dietary sources of omega 3 fatty acids: public health risks and benefits. British Journal of Nutrition 107 (S2):S23–S52. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512001456.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Turner, N. D., and S. K. Lloyd. 2017. Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: a systematic review of experimental results. Experimental Biology and Medicine 242 (8):813–39. doi: 10.1177/1535370217693117.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Turner, K. M., J. B. Keogh, and P. M. Clifton. 2015. Red meat, dairy, and insulin sensitivity: a randomized crossover intervention study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 101 (6):1173–9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.104976.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Turner, K. M., J. B. Keogh, P. J. Meikle, and P. M. Clifton. 2017. Changes in lipids and inflammatory markers after consuming diets high in red meat or dairy for four weeks. Nutrients 9 (8):886. doi: 10.3390/nu9080886.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • van Dusseldorp, M., J. Schneede, H. Refsum, P. M. Ueland, C. M. Thomas, E. de Boer, and W. A. van Staveren. 1999. Risk of persistent cobalamin deficiency in adolescents fed a macrobiotic diet in early life. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69 (4):664–71. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/69.4.664.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Van Winckel, M., S. Vande Velde, R. De Bruyne, and S. Van Biervliet. 2011. Clinical practice: vegetarian infant and child nutrition. European Journal of Pediatrics 170 (12):1489–94. doi: 10.1007/s00431-011-1547-x.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Wang, X., X. Lin, Y. Y. Ouyang, J. Liu, G. Zhao, A. Pan, and F. B. Hu. 2016. Red and processed meat consumption and mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Public Health Nutrition 19 (5):893–905. doi: 10.1017/S1368980015002062.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

[Google Scholar]

  • Willett, Walter, Johan Rockström, Brent Loken, Marco Springmann, Tim Lang, Sonja Vermeulen, Tara Garnett, David Tilman, Fabrice DeClerck, Amanda Wood., et al. 2019. Food in the anthropocene: the EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet 393 (10170):447–92. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Williams, P. 2007. Nutritional composition of red meat. Nutrition & Dietetics 64 (s4):S113–S119. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0080.2007.00197.x.

[Crossref]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Wilson, A. K., and M. J. Ball. 1999. Nutrient intake and iron status of australian male vegetarians. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (3):189–94. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600696.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Wongprachum, K., K. Sanchaisuriya, P. Sanchaisuriya, S. Siridamrongvattana, S. Manpeun, and F. P. Schlep. 2012. Proxy indicators for identifying iron deficiency among anemic vegetarians in an area prevalent for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies. Acta Haematologica 127 (4):250–5. doi: 10.1159/000337032.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Woo, K. S., T. C. Kwok, and D. S. Celermajer. 2014. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health. Nutrients 6 (8):3259–73. doi: 10.3390/nu6083259.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Yamamoto, S., T. Nakagawa, Y. Matsushita, S. Kusano, T. Hayashi, M. Irokawa, T. Aoki, Y. Korogi, and T. Mizoue. 2010. Visceral fat area and markers of insulin resistance in relation to colorectal neoplasia. Diabetes Care 33 (1):184–9. doi: 10.2337/dc09-1197.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Yang, C., L. Pan, C. Sun, Y. Xi, L. Wang, and D. Li. 2016. Red meat consumption and the risk of stroke: a dose-response Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 25 (5):1177–86. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.01.040.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Yen, H., W. Q. Li, A. Dhana, T. Li, A. Qureshi, and E. Cho. 2018. Red meat and processed meat intake and risk for cutaneous melanoma in white women and men: two prospective cohort studies. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 79 (2):252–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2018.04.036.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Yokoyama, Y.,. S. M. Levin, and N. D. Barnard. 2017. Association between plant-based diets and plasma lipids: a systematic review and Meta-analysis. Nutrition Reviews 75 (9):683–98. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nux030.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Young, S. S., and A. Karr. 2011. Deming, data and observational studies. Significance 8 (3):116–20. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-9713.2011.00506.x.

[Crossref]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Young, J. F., M. Therkildsen, B. Ekstrand, B. N. Che, M. K. Larsen, N. Oksbjerg, and J. Stagsted. 2013. Novel aspects of health promoting compounds in meat. Meat Science 95 (4):904–11. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.04.036.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Zengin, E., N. Sarper, and S. Caki Kiliç. 2009. Clinical manifestations of infants with nutritional vitamin B deficiency due to maternal dietary deficiency. Acta Paediatrica 98 (1):98–102. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01059.x.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Zhang, A. Q., S. C. Mitchell, and R. L. Smith. 1999. Dietary precursors of trimethylamine in man: a pilot study. Food and Chemical Toxicology 37 (5):515–20.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Zhang, Y., Y. Yang, M. S. Xie, X. Ding, H. Li, Z. C. Liu, and S. F. Peng. 2017. Is meat consumption associated with depression? a Meta-analysis of observational studies. BMC Psychiatry 17 (1):409. doi: 10.1186/s12888-017-1540-7.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]


(Joey) #25

@amwassil Somewhat challenging on the eyes to read on-screen this way, but finally made my way through and got the gist of the case being made. A nicely cogent argument is presented with plenty to chew on. Thanks again for sharing this piece.


(It's all about the bacon, baby!) #26

This is a very interesting article, and the authors make some very cogent points. Well worth the read.

By clicking on the first link in the OP, I was able to navigate to the complete article, and there is a link to download a PDF of it, which I did.


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #27

I added the below link here as well. I intend to add it here as soon as I can, since it is very apropos.

This is a very interesting and informative report. Although it dates from 2004 so possibly some points may be superceded. I don’t know.


#28

I find this very interesting.

I have Lync Syndrome and that gives me a very high risk of colon cancer. The doctors of course has warned against red meat… :thinking:


(Joey) #29

@amwassil Thanks for sharing this delightful read. A quick and straightforward piece with many useful citations.


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #30

I think the title of this talk is a bit off. Yes, she does talk about how she thinks mental health and diet are related causally. More importantly she talks about the very serious shortcomings of plant based diets for what she terms ‘brain health’ and eating what the brain needs.


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #31

(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #32

One of the hallmarks of pseudo-science is it never gives up in the face of contrary evidence. It simply ignores if it can, or dismisses as irrelevant or misconstrued when it can’t.

You can download the paper here in .PDF format under the Media Materials > Guideline Paper.


(Bob M) #33

Anyone who has done any research at all in this area would come to the same conclusions. The vast majority of “evidence” against meat is epidemiological evidence, with very small relative risks/hazard ratios/whatever, and primarily based on food frequency questionnaires. The very few RCTs that have been done have been negative. This is an example:

See: http://www.dssimon.com/MM/ACP-red-meat/Red_Meat_Review_Risk_for_All_Cause_Mortality.pdf

It’s only when these are passed through the lens of vegans/Seventh Day Adventists/Harvard that they become “significant”.


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #34

:point_up::point_up::point_up::point_up::point_up:


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #35

Here’s the link to the paper online.


(Bunny) #36

Fresh off the press (CNN) 19 hours ago (I guess your post is making head way? …lol)

Red and processed meat are OK to eat, controversial new guidelines claim. Don’t believe it, leading experts say