Should dietary guidelines recommend low red meat intake? Short answer: no!


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #17

6. Conclusions

Although meat has been a central component of the diet of our lineage for millions of years, some nutrition authorities—who often have close connections to animal rights activists or other forms of ideological vegetarianism, such as Seventh-Day Adventism (Banta et al., 2018 Banta, J. E., J. W. Lee, G. Hodgkin, Z. Yi, A. Fanica, and J. Sabate. 2018. The global influence of the Seventh-day Adventist Church on diet. Religions 9 (9):251. doi: 10.3390/rel9090251.[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar])—are promoting the view that meat causes a host of health problems and has no redeeming value. We contend that a large part of the case against meat is based on cherry-picked evidence and low-quality observational studies. The bald claim that red meat is an “unhealthy food” (Willett et al., 2019 Willett, Walter, Johan Rockström, Brent Loken, Marco Springmann, Tim Lang, Sonja Vermeulen, Tara Garnett, David Tilman, Fabrice DeClerck, Amanda Wood., et al. 2019. Food in the anthropocene: the EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet 393 (10170):447–92. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4.[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]) is wildly unsupported.

Based on misrepresentations of the state of the science, some organizations are attempting to influence policy makers to take action to reduce meat consumption. Simplification of complex science increases persuasive power but may also serve ideological purposes and lead to scientistic approaches. According to Mayes and Thompson (2015 Mayes, C. R., and D. B. Thompson. 2015. What should we eat? biopolitics, ethics, and nutritional scientism. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):587–99. doi: 10.1007/s11673-015-9670-4.[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]), manifestations of nutritional scientism in the context of biopolitics can have various ethical implications for “individual responsibility and freedom, concerning iatrogenic harm, and for well-being”. Well-meaning yet overemphasized and premature recommendations may eventually cause more damage than benefit, not only physiologically but also by unjustifiably holding individuals accountable for their health outcomes. We believe that a large reduction in meat consumption, such as has been advocated by the EAT-Lancet Commission (Willett et al., 2019 Willett, Walter, Johan Rockström, Brent Loken, Marco Springmann, Tim Lang, Sonja Vermeulen, Tara Garnett, David Tilman, Fabrice DeClerck, Amanda Wood., et al. 2019. Food in the anthropocene: the EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet 393 (10170):447–92. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4.[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]), could produce serious harm. Meat has long been, and continues to be, a primary source of high-quality nutrition. The theory that it can be replaced with legumes and supplements is mere speculation. While diets high in meat have proved successful over the long history of our species, the benefits of vegetarian diets are far from being established, and its dangers have been largely ignored by those who have endorsed it prematurely on the basis of questionable evidence.

Acknowledgements

FL acknowledges financial support of the Research Council of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, including the SRP7 and IOF342 projects, and in particular the Interdisciplinary Research Program ‘Tradition and naturalness of animal products within a societal context of change’ (IRP11).


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #18

References

  • Abete, I., D. Romaguera, A. R. Vieira, A. Lopez de Munain, and T. Norat. 2014. Association between total, processed, red and white meat consumption and all-cause, CVD and IHD mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. British Journal of Nutrition 112 (5):762–75. doi: 10.1017/S000711451400124X.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Aiello, L. C., and P. Wheeler. 1995. The expensive-tissue hypothesis: the brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution. Current Anthropology 36 (2):199–221. doi: 10.1086/204350.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Alexander, D. D., D. L. Weed, P. E. Miller, and M. A. Mohamed. 2015. Red meat and colorectal cancer: a quantitative update on the state of the epidemiologic science. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 34 (6):521–43. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2014.992553.

[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Alhassan, A.,. J. Young, M. E. J. Lean, and J. Lara. 2017. Consumption of fish and vascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. Atherosclerosis 266:87–94. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.09.028.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Anonymous 2016. Editorial: when is a carcinogen not a carcinogen? Lancet Oncology 17:681.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Antvorskov, Julie C., Thorhallur I. Halldorsson, Knud Josefsen, Jannet Svensson, Charlotta Granström, Bart O. Roep, Trine H. Olesen, Laufey Hrolfsdottir, Karsten Buschard, and Sjudur F. Olsen. 2018. Association between maternal gluten intake and type 1 diabetes in offspring: national prospective cohort study in Denmark. BMJ 362:k3547. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k3547.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Archer, E., M. L. Marlow, and C. J. Lavie. 2018. Controversy and debate: memory based methods paper 1: the fatal flaws of food frequency questionnaires and other memory-based dietary assessment methods. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 104:113–24. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2018.08.003.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Awidi, M., H. Bawaneh, H. Zureigat, M. AlHusban, and A. Awidi. 2018. Contributing factors to iron deficiency anemia in women in Jordan: a single-center cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE 13 (11):e0205868. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205868.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Banta, J. E., J. W. Lee, G. Hodgkin, Z. Yi, A. Fanica, and J. Sabate. 2018. The global influence of the Seventh-day Adventist Church on diet. Religions 9 (9):251. doi: 10.3390/rel9090251.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Barthels, F., F. Meyer, and R. Pietrowsky. 2018. Orthorexic and restrained eating behaviour in vegans, vegetarians, and individuals on a diet. Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia , Bulimia and Obesity 23 (2):159–66. doi: 10.1007/s40519-018-0479-0.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Benton, D., and R. Donohoe. 2011. The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores. British Journal of Nutrition 105 (7):1100–5. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510004733.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Bjørke Monsen, A. L., P. M. Ueland, S. E. Vollset, A. B. Guttormsen, T. Markestad, E. Solheim, and H. Refsum. 2001. Determinants of cobalamin status in newborns. Pediatrics 108 (3):624–30. doi: 10.1542/peds.108.3.624.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Boffetta, P., J. K. McLaughlin, C. La Vecchia, R. E. Tarone, L. Lipworth, and W. J. Blot. 2008. False-positive results in cancer epidemiology: a plea for epistemological modesty. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 100 (14):988–95. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djn191.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Boobis, Alan R., Samuel M. Cohen, Vicki L. Dellarco, John E. Doe, Penelope A. Fenner-Crisp, Angelo Moretto, Timothy P. Pastoor, Rita S. Schoeny, Jennifer G. Seed, and Douglas C. Wolf. 2016. Classification schemes for carcinogenicity based on hazard-identification have become outmoded and serve neither science nor society. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 82:158–66. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.10.014.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Boyle, P., P. Boffetta, and P. Autier. 2008. Diet, nutrition and cancer: public, media and scientific confusion. Annals of Oncology 19 (10):1665–7. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdn561.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Brantsaeter, Anne, Helle Knutsen, Nina Johansen, Kristine Nyheim, Iris Erlund, Helle Meltzer, and Sigrun Henjum. 2018. Inadequate iodine intake in population groups defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice in a norwegian convenience sample. Nutrients 10 (2):230. doi: 10.3390/nu10020230.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Bravo, J. P., C. J. Ibarra, and M. M. Paredes. 2014. Hematological and neurological compromise due to vitamin B12 deficit in infant of a vegetarian mother: case report. Revista Chilena de Pediatría 85:337–43.

[PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Brocadello, F., G. Levedianos, F. Piccione, R. Manara, and F. F. Pesenti. 2007. Irreversible subacute sclerotic combined degeneration of the spinal cord in a vegan subject. Nutrition 23 (7-8):622–4. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2007.05.006.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Burd, N. A., J. W. Beals, I. G. Martinez, A. F. Salvador, and S. K. Skinner. 2019. Food-first approach to enhance the regulation of post-exercise skeletal muscle protein synthesis and remodeling. Sports Medicine 49 (S1):59–68. doi: 10.1007/s40279-018-1009-y.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Burdge, G. C., S.-Y. Tan, and C. J. Henry. 2017. Long-chain n-3 PUFA in vegetarian women: a metabolic perspective. Journal of Nutritional Science 6:e58. doi: 10.1017/jns.2017.62.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Burkert, N. T., J. Muckenhuber, F. Großschädl, E. Rásky, and W. Freidl. 2014. Nutrition and health – the association between eating behavior and various health parameters: a matched sample study. PLOS ONE 9 (2):e88278. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088278.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Cao, Y., L. L. Strate, B. R. Keeley, I. Tam, K. Wu, E. L. Giovannucci, and A. T. Chan. 2018. Meat intake and risk of diverticulitis among men. Gut 67 (3):466–72. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2016-313082.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Carr, P. R., V. Walter, H. Brenner, and M. Hoffmeister. 2016. Meat subtypes and their association with colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Cancer 138 (2):293–302. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29423.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Chen, G. C., D. B. Lv, Z. Pang, and Q. F. Liu. 2013. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67 (1):91–5. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.180.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Chiron, R., A. Dabadie, V. Gandemer-Delignieres, M. Balençon, E. Legall, and M. Roussey. 2001. Anemia and limping in a vegetarian adolescent. Archives de Pédiatrie 8 (1):62–5. doi: 10.1016/S0929-693X(00)00168-8.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #19
  • Cholewski, M., M. Tomczykowa, and M. Tomczyk. 2018. A comprehensive review of chemistry, sources and bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids. Nutrients 10 (11):1662. doi: 10.3390/nu10111662.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Cofnas, N. 2019. Is vegetarianism healthy for children? Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 59 (13):2052–60. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1437024.

[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Colev, M., H. Engel, M. Mayers, M. Markowitz, and L. Cahill. 2004. Vegan diet and vitamin a deficiency. Clinical Pediatrics 43 (1):107–9. doi: 10.1177/000992280404300116.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Cordain, L., J. Brand Miller, S. Boyd Eaton, N. Mann, S. H. A. Holt, and J. D. Speth. 2000. Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71 (3):682–92. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/71.3.682.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Cordain, L., S. B. Eaton, J. Brand Miller, N. Mann, and K. Hill. 2002. The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56 (S1):S42–S52. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601353.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Crawford, J. R., and D. Say. 2013. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia. Case Reports 2013:bcr2013008840.

[PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Deghan, M., A. Mente, X. Zhang, S. Swaminathan, W. Li, V. Mohan., et al. 2017. Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study. Lancet 39:2050–62.

[Crossref]

, [Google Scholar]

  • de Heinzelin, J., J. D. Clark, T. White, W. Hart, P. Renne, G. WoldeGabriel, Y. Beyene, and E. Vrba. 1999. Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old bouri hominids. Science 284 (5414):625–9. doi: 10.1126/science.284.5414.625.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • De Rosa, Anna, Fabiana Rossi, Maria Lieto, Roberto Bruno, Amalia De Renzo, Vincenzo Palma, Mario Quarantelli, and Giuseppe De Michele. 2012. Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in a vegan. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 114 (7):1000–2. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2012.01.008.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • DiNicolantonio, J. J. 2014. The cardiometabolic consequences of replacing saturated fats with carbohydrates or Ω-6 polyunsaturated fats: do the dietary guidelines have it wrong? Open Heart 1 (1):e000032doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2013-000032.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel, Travis Rayne Pickering, Fernando Diez-Martín, Audax Mabulla, Charles Musiba, Gonzalo Trancho, Enrique Baquedano, Henry T. Bunn, Doris Barboni, Manuel Santonja., et al. 2012. Earliest porotic hyperostosis on a 1.5-million-year-old hominin, olduvai gorge, tanzania. PLOS ONE 7 (10):e46414. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046414.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Donaldson, M. S. 2000. Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 44 (5-6):229–34. doi: 10.1159/000046689.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Elorinne, Anna-Liisa, Georg Alfthan, Iris Erlund, Hanna Kivimäki, Annukka Paju, Irma Salminen, Ursula Turpeinen, Sari Voutilainen, and Juha Laakso. 2016. Food and nutrient intake and nutritional status of finnish vegans and non-vegetarians. PLOS ONE 11 (2):e0148235. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148235.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Elmadfa, I., and I. Singer. 2009. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89 (5):1693S–8S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736Y.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Etemadi, A., R. Sinha, M. H. Ward, B. I. Graubard, M. Inoue-Choi, S. M. Dawsey, and C. C. Abnet. 2017. Mortality from different causes associated with meat, heme iron, nitrates, and nitrites in the NIH-AARP diet and health study: population based cohort study. BMJ 357:j1957. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j1957

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Everaert, Inge, Antien Mooyaart, Audrey Baguet, Ana Zutinic, Hans Baelde, Eric Achten, Youri Taes, Emile De Heer, and Wim Derave. 2011. Vegetarianism, female gender and increasing age, but not CNDP1 genotype, are associated with reduced muscle carnosine levels in humans. Amino Acids 40 (4):1221–9. doi: 10.1007/s00726-010-0749-2.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Farvid, M. S., E. Cho, W. Y. Chen, A. H. Eliassen, and W. C. Willett. 2015. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk. International Journal of Cancer 136 (8):1909–20. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29218.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Fayet, F.,. V. Flood, P. Petocz, and S. Samman. 2014. Avoidance of meat and poultry decreases intakes of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, selenium and zinc in young women. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 27:135–42.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • FCN 2018. Vegan diets: review of nutritional benefits and risks. Expert report of the federal commission for nutrition . Bern: Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office.

[Google Scholar]

  • Feinman, R. 2018. What’s really wrong with medical research and how to fix it. Journal of Evolution and Health 2 (3):10. doi: 10.15310/2334-3591.1069.

[Crossref]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Feskens, E. J., D. Sluik, and G. J. van Woudenbergh. 2013. Meat consumption, diabetes, and its complications. Current Diabetes Reports 13 (2):298–306. doi: 10.1007/s11892-013-0365-0.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Fogelholm, M., N. Kanerva, and S. Männistö. 2015. Association between red and processed meat consumption and chronic diseases: the confounding role of other dietary factors. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69 (9):1060–5. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.63.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Førland, E. S., and M. J. Lindberg. 2015. Severe macrocytic anaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in a vegan. Ugeskriftet Laeger 177:V02150167.

[PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Foster, M., A. Chu, P. Petocz, and S. Samman. 2013. Effect of vegetarian diets on zinc status: a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in humans. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 93 (10):2362–71. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6179.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Gerstein, H. C., J. McMurray, and R. R. Holman. 2019. Real-world studies no substitute for RCTs in establishing efficacy. Lancet 393 (10168):210–1. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32840-X.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #20
  • Giannini, A., N. Mirra, and M. F. Patria. 2006. Health risks for children raised on vegan or vegetarian diets. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 7 (2):188. doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000200965.44972.8F.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Gilsing, A. M. J., F. L. Crowe, Z. Lloyd-Wright, T. A. B. Sanders, P. N. Appleby, N. E. Allen, and T. J. Key. 2010. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in british male omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans: results from a cross-sectional analysis of the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64 (9):933–9. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.142.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Goraya, J. S., S. Kaur, and B. Mehra. 2015. Neurology of nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in infants: case series from India and literature review. Journal of Child Neurology 30 (13):1831–7. doi: 10.1177/0883073815583688.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Grosso, G., A. Micek, J. Godos, A. Pajak, S. Sciacca, F. Galvano, and P. Boffetta. 2017. Health risk factors associated with meat, fruit and vegetable consumption in cohort studies: a comprehensive meta-analysis. PLOS ONE 12 (8):e0183787. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0183787.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Guez, S., G. Chiarelli, F. Menni, S. Salera, N. Principi, and S. Esposito. 2012. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an exclusively breastfed 5-month-old italian infant born to a mother receiving multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy. BMC Pediatrics 12 (1):85. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-85.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Gupta, S. 2016. Brain food: clever eating. Nature 531 (7592):S12–S13. doi: 10.1038/531S12a.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

[Google Scholar]

  • Guyatt, Gordon H., Andrew D. Oxman, Gunn E. Vist, Regina Kunz, Yngve Falck-Ytter, Pablo Alonso-Coello, and Holger J. Schünemann. 2008. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 336 (7650):924–6. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39489.470347.AD.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Haddad, E. H., and J. S. Tanzman. 2003. What do vegetarians in the United States eat? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78 (3):626S–32S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/78.3.626S.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Hall, A. G., T. Ngu, H. T. Nga, P. N. Quyen, P. T. Hong Anh, and J. C. King. 2017. An animal-source food supplement increases micronutrient intakes and iron status among reproductive-age women in rural vietnam. The Journal of Nutrition 147 (6):1200–7. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.241968.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Herbert, V. 1994. Staging vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status in vegetarians. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 (5):1213S–22S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/59.5.1213S.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Herrmann, W., and J. Geisel. 2002. Vegetarian lifestyle and monitoring of vitamin B-12 status. Clinica Chimica Acta 326 (1-2):47–59. doi: 10.1016/S0009-8981(02)00307-8.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Herrmann, W., H. Schorr, R. Obeid, and J. Geisel. 2003. Vitamin B-12 status, particularly holotranscobalamin II and methylmalonic acid concentrations, and hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78 (1):131–6. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/78.1.131.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Hibbeln, J. R., K. Northstone, J. Evans, and J. Golding. 2018. Vegetarian diets and depressive symptoms among men. Journal of Affective Disorders 225:13–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.07.051.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Hodgson, J. M., N. C. Ward, V. Burke, L. J. Beilin, and I. B. Puddey. 2007. Increased lean red meat intake does not elevate markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in humans. The Journal of Nutrition 137 (2):363–7. doi: 10.1093/jn/137.2.363.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Hokin, B. D., and T. Butler. 1999. Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) status in Seventh-day Adventist ministers in Australia. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 (3):576s–8s. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/70.3.576s.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Huang, W., Y. Han, J. Xu, W. Zhu, and Z. Li. 2013. Red and processed meat intake and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Causes & Control 24 (1):193–201. doi: 10.1007/s10552-012-0105-9.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Hulett, J. L., R. E. Weiss, N. O. Bwibo, O. M. Galal, N. Drorbaugh, and C. G. Neumann. 2014. Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of kenyan schoolchildren in a cluster-randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial. British Journal of Nutrition 111 (5):875–86. doi: 10.1017/S0007114513003310.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Hur, S. J., C. Jo, Y. Yoon, J. Y. Jeong, and K. T. Lee. 2018. Controversy on the correlation of red and processed meat consumption with colorectal cancer risk: an asian perspective. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition . doi: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1495615.

[Taylor & Francis Online]

, [Google Scholar]

[Google Scholar]

  • Iguacel, I.,. M. L. Miguel-Berges, A. Gómez-Bruton, L. A. Moreno, and C. Julián. 2018. Veganism, vegetarianism, bone mineral density, and fracture risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition Reviews 77 (1):1–8. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuy045.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Ingenbleek, Y., and K. S. McCully. 2012. Vegetarianism produces subclinical malnutrition, hyperhomocysteinemia and atherogenesis. Nutrition 28 (2):148–53. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2011.04.009.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Ioannidis, J. P. A. 2018. The challenge of reforming nutritional epidemiologic research. JAMA 320 (10):969–70. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.11025.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Jeppesen, J.,. H. Ole Hein, P. Suadicani, and F. Gyntelberg. 2001. Low triglycerides–high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of ischemic heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 161 (3):361–6. doi: 10.1001/archinte.161.3.361.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Kadrabová, J., A. Madaric, Z. Kováciková, and E. Ginter. 1995. Selenium status, plasma zinc, copper, and magnesium in vegetarians. Biological Trace Element Research 50 (1):13–24. doi: 10.1007/BF02789145.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #21
  • Kapoor, A., M. Baig, S. A. Tunio, A. S. Memon, and H. Karmani. 2017. Neuropsychiatric and neurological problems among vitamin B12 deficient young vegetarians. Neurosciences 22 (3):228–32. doi: 10.17712/nsj.2017.3.20160445.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Key, T. J., P. N. Appleby, E. A. Spencer, R. C. Travis, A. W. Roddam, and N. E. Allen. 2009. Mortality in british vegetarians: results from the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89 (5):1613S–9S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736L.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Kim, Y., and Y. Je. 2018. Meat consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome: results from the korean population and a Meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutrients 10 (4):390. doi: 10.3390/nu10040390.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Kim, S., M. F. Fenech, and P.-J R. Kim. 2018. Nutritionally recommended food for semi- to strict vegetarian diets based on large-scale nutrient composition data. Scientific Reports 8 (1):4344. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22691-1.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Klurfeld, D. M. 2015. Research gaps in evaluating the relationship of meat and health. Meat Science 109:86–95. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.05.022.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Klurfeld, D. M. 2018. What is the role of meat in a healthy diet?. Animal Frontiers 8 (3):5–10. doi: 10.1093/af/vfy009.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Kocaoglu, C., F. Akin, H. Caksen, S. B. Böke, S. Arslan, and S. Aygün. 2014. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 32(2):367–71.

[PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Koebnick, Corinna, Ingrid Hoffmann, Pieter C. Dagnelie, Ulrike A. Heins, Sunitha N. Wickramasinghe, Indrika D. Ratnayaka, Sindy Gruendel, Jan Lindemans, and Claus Leitzmann. 2004. Long-term ovo-lacto vegetarian diet impairs vitamin B-12 status in pregnant women. The Journal of Nutrition 134 (12):3319–26. doi: 10.1093/jn/134.12.3319.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Koeth, Robert A., Zeneng Wang, Bruce S. Levison, Jennifer A. Buffa, Elin Org, Brendan T. Sheehy, Earl B. Britt, Xiaoming Fu, Yuping Wu, Lin Li., et al. 2013. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nature Medicine 19 (5):576–85. doi: 10.1038/nm.3145.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M., K. Bucková, I. Klimes, and E. Seboková. 2008. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 47:183–5.

[Crossref]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Krauss, A. 2018. Why all randomised controlled trials produce biased results. Annals of Medicine 50 (4):312–22. doi: 10.1080/07853890.2018.1453233.

[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Kristensen, Nadja B., Mia L. Madsen, Tue H. Hansen, Kristine H. Allin, Camilla Hoppe, Sisse Fagt, Mia S. Lausten, Rikke J. Gøbel, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen., et al. 2015. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in danish vegans. Nutrition Journal 14 (1):115. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0103-3.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Kruger, C., and Y. Zhou. 2018. Red meat and Colon cancer: a review of mechanistic evidence for heme in the context of risk assessment methodology. Food and Chemical Toxicology 118:131–53. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.04.048.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Kwok, C. S., S. Umar, P. K. Myint, M. A. Mamas, and Y. K. Loke. 2014. Vegetarian diet, seventh day adventists and risk of cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Cardiology 176 (3):680–6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.07.080.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Laidlaw, S. A., T. D. Shultz, J. T. Cecchino, and J. D. Kopple. 1988. Plasma and urine taurine levels in vegans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47 (4):660–3. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/47.4.660.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Larsson, C. L., and G. K. Johansson. 2002. Dietary intake and nutritional status of young vegans and omnivores in Sweden. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76 (1):100–6. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/76.1.100.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Larsson, S. C., and N. Orsini. 2014. Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology 179 (3):282–9. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt261.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Lee, Jung Eun., Dale F. McLerran, Betsy Rolland, Yu Chen, Eric J. Grant, Rajesh Vedanthan, Manami Inoue, Shoichiro Tsugane, Yu-Tang Gao, Ichiro Tsuji., et al. 2013. Meat intake and cause-specific mortality: a pooled analysis of asian prospective cohort studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98 (4):1032–41. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.062638.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

[Google Scholar]

  • Leroy, F. 2019. Meat as a pharmakon: an exploration of the biosocial complexities of meat consumption. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 87:409–46.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Leroy, F., M. Brengman, W. Ryckbosch, and P. Scholliers. 2018. Meat in the post-truth era: mass media discourses on health and disease in the attention economy. Appetite 125:345–55. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.028.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Leroy, Frédéric, Teresa Aymerich, Marie-Christine Champomier-Vergès, Luca Cocolin, Luc De Vuyst, Mónica Flores, Françoise Leroi, Sabine Leroy, Régine Talon, Rudi F. Vogel., et al. 2018. Fermented meats (and the symptomatic case of the flemish food pyramid): are we heading towards the vilification of a valuable food group?. International Journal of Food Microbiology 274:67–70. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2018.02.006.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Leung, A. M., A. Lamar, X. He, L. E. Braverman, and E. N. Pearce. 2011. Iodine status and thyroid function of boston-area vegetarians and vegans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96 (8):e1303–7. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-0256.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Licht, D. J., G. T. Berry, D. G. Brooks, and D. P. Younkin. 2001. Reversible subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in a 14-year-old due to a strict vegan diet. Clinical Pediatrics 40 (7):413–5. doi: 10.1177/000992280104000710.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Lippi, G., C. Mattiuzzi, and F. Sanchis-Gomar. 2015. Red meat consumption and ischemic heart disease. A systematic literature review. Meat Science 108:32–6. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.05.019.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #22
  • Louwman, Marieke W. J., Marijke van Dusseldorp, Fons J. R. van de Vijver, Chris M. G. Thomas, Jørn Schneede, Per M. Ueland, Helga Refsum, and Wija A. van Staveren. 2000. Signs of impaired cognitive function in adolescents with marginal cobalamin status. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72 (3):762–9. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/72.3.762.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Mann, N., A. Sinclair, M. Pille, L. Johnson, G. Warrick, E. Reder, and R. Lorenz. 1997. The effect of short-term diets rich in fish, red meat, or white meat on thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis in humans. Lipids 32 (6):635–44. doi: 10.1007/s11745-997-0081-5.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Matta, Joane, Sébastien Czernichow, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Nicolas Hoertel, Frédéric Limosin, Marcel Goldberg, Marie Zins, and Cedric Lemogne. 2018. Depressive symptoms and vegetarian diets: results from the constances cohort. Nutrients 10 (11):1695. doi: 10.3390/nu10111695.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Mayes, C. R., and D. B. Thompson. 2015. What should we eat? biopolitics, ethics, and nutritional scientism. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):587–99. doi: 10.1007/s11673-015-9670-4.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • McAfee, A. J., E. M. McSorley, G. J. Cuskelly, B. W. Moss, J. M. Wallace, M. P. Bonham, and A. M. Fearon. 2010. Red meat consumption: an overview of the risks and benefits. Meat Science 84 (1):1–13. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.08.029.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • McNeill, S. H. 2014. Inclusion of red meat in healthful dietary patterns. Meat Science 98 (3):452–60. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.06.028.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Milea, D., N. Cassoux, and P. LeHoang. 2000. Blindness in a strict vegan. The New England Journal of Medicine 342 (12):897–8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200003233421217.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Milton, K. 2003. The critical role played by animal source foods in human (Homo) evolution. The Journal of Nutrition 133 (11 Suppl 2):3886S–92S. doi: 10.1093/jn/133.11.3886S.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Montonen, J., H. Boeing, A. Fritsche, E. Schleicher, H.-G. Joost, M. B. Schulze, A. Steffen, and T. Pischon. 2013. Consumption of red meat and whole-grain bread in relation to biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. European Journal of Nutrition 52 (1):337–45. doi: 10.1007/s00394-012-0340-6.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Morabia, A. 2008. Joseph goldberger’s research on the prevention of pellagra. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 101 (11):566–8. doi: 10.1258/jrsm.2008.08k010.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Naik, S., N. Mahalle, and V. Bhide. 2018. Identification of vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarian indians. The British Journal of Nutrition 119 (6):629–35. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518000090.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Neumann, C. G., S. P. Murphy, C. Gewa, M. Grillenberger, and N. O. Bwibo. 2007. Meat supplementation improves growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes in Kenyan children. The Journal of Nutrition 137 (4):1119–23. doi: 10.1093/jn/137.4.1119.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Nezlek, J. B., C. A. Forestell, and D. B. Newman. 2018. Relationships between vegetarian dietary habits and daily well-being. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 57 (5):425–38. doi: 10.1080/03670244.2018.1536657.

[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Ng, E., and M. Neff. 2018. Recognising the return of nutritional deficiencies: a modern pellagra puzzle. BMJ Case Reports 11 (1):e227454. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2018-227454.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

[Google Scholar]

  • Obersby, D., D. C. Chappell, A. Dunnett, and A. A. Tsiami. 2013. Plasma total homocysteine status of vegetarians compared with omnivores: a systematic review and Meta-analysis. British Journal of Nutrition 109 (5):785–94. doi: 10.1017/S000711451200520X.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • O’Connor, L. E., J. E. Kim, and W. W. Campbell. 2017. Total red meat intake of ≥0.5 servings/d does not negatively influence cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systemically searched meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 105(1):57–69. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.142521.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • O’Gorman, P., D. Holmes, A. V. Ramanan, B. Bose-Haider, M. J. Lewis, and A. Will. 2002. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in an adolescent white boy. Journal of Clinical Pathology 55(6):475–6. doi: 10.1136/jcp.55.6.475.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Oostindjer, Marije, Jan Alexander, Gro V. Amdam, Grethe Andersen, Nathan S. Bryan, Duan Chen, Denis E. Corpet, Stefaan De Smet, Lars Ove Dragsted, Anna Haug., et al. 2014. The role of red and processed meat in colorectal cancer development: a perspective. Meat Science 97 (4):583–96. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.02.011.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Pan, A., Q. Sun, A. M. Bernstein, M. B. Schulze, J. E. Manson, W. C. Willett, and F. B. Hu. 2011. Red meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 94 (4):1088–96. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.018978.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Pan, A., Q. Sun, A. M. Bernstein, M. B. Schulze, J. E. Manson, M. J. Stampfer., et al. 2012. Red meat consumption and mortality: results from 2 prospective cohort studies. Archives of Internal Medicine 172:555–63. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.2287.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Pannemans, D. L., A. J. Wagenmakers, K. R. Westerterp, G. Schaafsma, and D. Halliday. 1998. Effect of protein source and quantity on protein metabolism in elderly women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68 (6):1228–35. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/68.6.1228.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Pawlak, R. 2015. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians? American Journal of Preventive Medicine 48 (6):e11–26. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.009.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Pawlak, Roman, Scott James Parrott, Sudha Raj, Diana Cullum-Dugan, and Debbie Lucus. 2013. How prevalent is vitamin B12 deficiency among vegetarians? Nutrition Reviews 71 (2):110–7. doi: 10.1111/nure.12001.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Pawlak, R., S. E. Lester, and T. Babatunde. 2014. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68 (5):541–8. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.46.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #23
  • Pereira, P. M., and A. F. Vicente. 2013. Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet. Meat Science 93 (3):586–92. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.09.018.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Phillips, S. M. 2012. Nutrient-rich meat proteins in offsetting age-related muscle loss. Meat Science 92 (3):174–8. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.04.027.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Rae, C., A. L. Digney, S. R. McEwan, and T. C. Bates. 2003. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 270 (1529):2147–50. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2003.2492.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

[Google Scholar]

[Google Scholar]

  • Rogers, L. M., E. Boy, J. W. Miller, R. Green, J. C. Sabel, and L. H. Allen. 2003. High prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in guatemalan schoolchildren: associations with low plasma holotranscobalamin II and elevated serum methylmalonic acid and plasma homocysteine concentrations. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77 (2):433–40. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/77.2.433.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Rondanelli, M., S. Perna, M. A. Faliva, G. Peroni, V. Infantino, and R. Pozzi. 2015. Novel insights on intake of meat and prevention of sarcopenia: all reasons for an adequate consumption. Nutricion Hospitalaria 32 (5):2136–14. 23.

[PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Rosell, M. S., Z. Lloyd-Wright, P. N. Appleby, T. A. Sanders, N. E. Allen, and T. J. Key. 2005. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in british meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82 (2):327–34. doi: 10.1093/ajcn.82.2.327.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Samulak, J. J., A. K. Sawicka, D. Hartmane, S. Grinberga, O. Pugovics, W. Lysiak-Szydlowska, and R. A. Olek. 2019. L-Carnitine supplementation increases trimethylamine-N-oxide but not markers of atherosclerosis in healthy aged women. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 74 (1):11–7. doi: 10.1159/000495037.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Satija, Ambika, Shilpa N. Bhupathiraju, Eric B. Rimm, Donna Spiegelman, Stephanie E. Chiuve, Lea Borgi, Walter C. Willett, JoAnn E. Manson, Qi Sun, Frank B. Hu., et al. 2016. Plant-based dietary patterns and incidence of type 2 diabetes in US men and women: results from three prospective cohort studies. PLOS Medicine 13 (6):e1002039. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002039.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Schatzkin, Arthur, Victor Kipnis, Raymond J. Carroll, Douglas Midthune, Amy F. Subar, Sheila Bingham, Dale A. Schoeller, Richard P. Troiano, and Laurence S. Freedman. 2003. A comparison of a food frequency questionnaire with a 24-hour recall for use in an epidemiological cohort study: results from the biomarker-based observing protein and energy nutrition (OPEN) study. International Journal of Epidemiology 32 (6):1054–62. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyg264.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Schjønsby, H. 1989. Vitamin B12 absorption and malabsorption. Gut 30 (12):1686–91. doi: 10.1136/gut.30.12.1686.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Schoenfeld, J. D., and J. P. A. Ioannidis. 2013. Is everything we eat associated with cancer? a systematic cookbook review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 97 (1):127–34. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.047142.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Schultz, T. D., and J. E. Leklem. 1983. Selenium status of vegetarians, nonvegetarians, and hormone-dependent cancer subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 37:114–8. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/37.1.114.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Schüpbach, R., R. Wegmüller, C. Berguerand, M. Bui, and I. Herter-Aeberli. 2017. Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland. European Journal of Nutrition 56 (1):283–93. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-1079-7.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Shapiro, S. 2004. Looking to the 21st century: have we learned from our mistakes, or are we doomed to compound them?. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 13 (4):257–65. doi: 10.1002/pds.903.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Shibata, H. 2001. Nutritional factors on longevity and quality of life in Japan. Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 5 (2):97–102.

[PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Shinwell, E. D., and R. Gorodischer. 1982. Totally vegetarian diets and infant nutrition. Pediatrics 70 (4):582–6.

[PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Siepmann, T., J. Roofeh, F. W. Kiefer, and D. G. Edelson. 2011. Hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction associated with soy product consumption. Nutrition 27 (7-8):859–62.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Sinha, R., A. J. Cross, B. I. Graubard, M. F. Leitzmann, and A. Schatzkin. 2009. Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Archives of Internal Medicine 169 (6):562–71. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.6.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Specker, B. L., D. Miller, E. J. Norman, H. Greene, and K. C. Hayes. 1988. Increased urinary methylmalonic acid excretion in breast-fed infants of vegetarian mothers and identification of an acceptable dietary source of vitamin B-12. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47 (1):89–92. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/47.1.89.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Specker, B. L., A. Black, L. Allen, and F. Morrow. 1990. Vitamin B-12: low milk concentrations are related to low serum concentrations in vegetarian women and to methylmalonic aciduria in their infants. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52 (6):1073–6. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/52.6.1073.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Springmann, Marco, Daniel Mason-D’Croz, Sherman Robinson, Keith Wiebe, H. Charles J. Godfray, Mike Rayner, and Peter Scarborough. 2018. Health-motivated taxes on red and processed meat: a modelling study on optimal tax levels and associated health impacts. PLOS ONE 13 (11):e0204139. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204139.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Stark, A. H., R. Reifen, and M. A. Crawford. 2016. Past and present insights on alpha-linolenic acid and the omega-3 fatty acid family. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 56 (14):2261–7. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2013.828678

[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Swinburn, Boyd A., Vivica I. Kraak, Steven Allender, Vincent J. Atkins, Phillip I. Baker, Jessica R. Bogard, Hannah Brinsden, Alejandro Calvillo, Olivier De Schutter, Raji Devarajan., et al. 2019. The global syndemic of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change: the Lancet Commission report. Lancet 393 (10173):791–846. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32822-8.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #24
  • Tang, M., and N. F. Krebs. 2014. High protein intake from meats as complementary food increases growth but not adiposity in breastfed infants: a randomized trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (5):1322–8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.088807.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Torres, Susan J., Sian Robinson, Liliana Orellana, Stella L. O’Connell, Carley A. Grimes, Niamh L. Mundell, David W. Dunstan, Caryl A. Nowson, and Robin M. Daly. 2017. Effects of progressive resistance training combined with a protein-enriched lean red meat diet on health-related quality of life in elderly women: secondary analysis of a 4-month cluster randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Nutrition 117 (11):1550–9. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517001507.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Truswell, A. S. 2009. Problems with red meat in the WCRF2. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89 (4):1274–5. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27201.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Tur, J. A., M. M. Bibiloni, A. Sureda, and A. Pons. 2012. Dietary sources of omega 3 fatty acids: public health risks and benefits. British Journal of Nutrition 107 (S2):S23–S52. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512001456.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Turner, N. D., and S. K. Lloyd. 2017. Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: a systematic review of experimental results. Experimental Biology and Medicine 242 (8):813–39. doi: 10.1177/1535370217693117.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Turner, K. M., J. B. Keogh, and P. M. Clifton. 2015. Red meat, dairy, and insulin sensitivity: a randomized crossover intervention study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 101 (6):1173–9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.104976.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Turner, K. M., J. B. Keogh, P. J. Meikle, and P. M. Clifton. 2017. Changes in lipids and inflammatory markers after consuming diets high in red meat or dairy for four weeks. Nutrients 9 (8):886. doi: 10.3390/nu9080886.

[Crossref], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • van Dusseldorp, M., J. Schneede, H. Refsum, P. M. Ueland, C. M. Thomas, E. de Boer, and W. A. van Staveren. 1999. Risk of persistent cobalamin deficiency in adolescents fed a macrobiotic diet in early life. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69 (4):664–71. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/69.4.664.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Van Winckel, M., S. Vande Velde, R. De Bruyne, and S. Van Biervliet. 2011. Clinical practice: vegetarian infant and child nutrition. European Journal of Pediatrics 170 (12):1489–94. doi: 10.1007/s00431-011-1547-x.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Wang, X., X. Lin, Y. Y. Ouyang, J. Liu, G. Zhao, A. Pan, and F. B. Hu. 2016. Red and processed meat consumption and mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Public Health Nutrition 19 (5):893–905. doi: 10.1017/S1368980015002062.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

[Google Scholar]

  • Willett, Walter, Johan Rockström, Brent Loken, Marco Springmann, Tim Lang, Sonja Vermeulen, Tara Garnett, David Tilman, Fabrice DeClerck, Amanda Wood., et al. 2019. Food in the anthropocene: the EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet 393 (10170):447–92. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Williams, P. 2007. Nutritional composition of red meat. Nutrition & Dietetics 64 (s4):S113–S119. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0080.2007.00197.x.

[Crossref]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Wilson, A. K., and M. J. Ball. 1999. Nutrient intake and iron status of australian male vegetarians. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (3):189–94. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600696.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Wongprachum, K., K. Sanchaisuriya, P. Sanchaisuriya, S. Siridamrongvattana, S. Manpeun, and F. P. Schlep. 2012. Proxy indicators for identifying iron deficiency among anemic vegetarians in an area prevalent for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies. Acta Haematologica 127 (4):250–5. doi: 10.1159/000337032.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Woo, K. S., T. C. Kwok, and D. S. Celermajer. 2014. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health. Nutrients 6 (8):3259–73. doi: 10.3390/nu6083259.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Yamamoto, S., T. Nakagawa, Y. Matsushita, S. Kusano, T. Hayashi, M. Irokawa, T. Aoki, Y. Korogi, and T. Mizoue. 2010. Visceral fat area and markers of insulin resistance in relation to colorectal neoplasia. Diabetes Care 33 (1):184–9. doi: 10.2337/dc09-1197.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Yang, C., L. Pan, C. Sun, Y. Xi, L. Wang, and D. Li. 2016. Red meat consumption and the risk of stroke: a dose-response Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 25 (5):1177–86. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.01.040.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Yen, H., W. Q. Li, A. Dhana, T. Li, A. Qureshi, and E. Cho. 2018. Red meat and processed meat intake and risk for cutaneous melanoma in white women and men: two prospective cohort studies. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 79 (2):252–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2018.04.036.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Yokoyama, Y.,. S. M. Levin, and N. D. Barnard. 2017. Association between plant-based diets and plasma lipids: a systematic review and Meta-analysis. Nutrition Reviews 75 (9):683–98. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nux030.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Young, S. S., and A. Karr. 2011. Deming, data and observational studies. Significance 8 (3):116–20. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-9713.2011.00506.x.

[Crossref]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Young, J. F., M. Therkildsen, B. Ekstrand, B. N. Che, M. K. Larsen, N. Oksbjerg, and J. Stagsted. 2013. Novel aspects of health promoting compounds in meat. Meat Science 95 (4):904–11. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.04.036.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Zengin, E., N. Sarper, and S. Caki Kiliç. 2009. Clinical manifestations of infants with nutritional vitamin B deficiency due to maternal dietary deficiency. Acta Paediatrica 98 (1):98–102. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01059.x.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Zhang, A. Q., S. C. Mitchell, and R. L. Smith. 1999. Dietary precursors of trimethylamine in man: a pilot study. Food and Chemical Toxicology 37 (5):515–20.

[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]

, [Google Scholar]

  • Zhang, Y., Y. Yang, M. S. Xie, X. Ding, H. Li, Z. C. Liu, and S. F. Peng. 2017. Is meat consumption associated with depression? a Meta-analysis of observational studies. BMC Psychiatry 17 (1):409. doi: 10.1186/s12888-017-1540-7.

[Crossref], [PubMed]

, [Google Scholar]


(Joey) #25

@amwassil Somewhat challenging on the eyes to read on-screen this way, but finally made my way through and got the gist of the case being made. A nicely cogent argument is presented with plenty to chew on. Thanks again for sharing this piece.


(It's all about the bacon, baby!) #26

This is a very interesting article, and the authors make some very cogent points. Well worth the read.

By clicking on the first link in the OP, I was able to navigate to the complete article, and there is a link to download a PDF of it, which I did.


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #27

I added the below link here as well. I intend to add it here as soon as I can, since it is very apropos.

This is a very interesting and informative report. Although it dates from 2004 so possibly some points may be superceded. I don’t know.


#28

I find this very interesting.

I have Lync Syndrome and that gives me a very high risk of colon cancer. The doctors of course has warned against red meat… :thinking:


(Joey) #29

@amwassil Thanks for sharing this delightful read. A quick and straightforward piece with many useful citations.


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #30

I think the title of this talk is a bit off. Yes, she does talk about how she thinks mental health and diet are related causally. More importantly she talks about the very serious shortcomings of plant based diets for what she terms ‘brain health’ and eating what the brain needs.


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #31

(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #32

One of the hallmarks of pseudo-science is it never gives up in the face of contrary evidence. It simply ignores if it can, or dismisses as irrelevant or misconstrued when it can’t.

You can download the paper here in .PDF format under the Media Materials > Guideline Paper.


(Bob M) #33

Anyone who has done any research at all in this area would come to the same conclusions. The vast majority of “evidence” against meat is epidemiological evidence, with very small relative risks/hazard ratios/whatever, and primarily based on food frequency questionnaires. The very few RCTs that have been done have been negative. This is an example:

See: http://www.dssimon.com/MM/ACP-red-meat/Red_Meat_Review_Risk_for_All_Cause_Mortality.pdf

It’s only when these are passed through the lens of vegans/Seventh Day Adventists/Harvard that they become “significant”.


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #34

:point_up::point_up::point_up::point_up::point_up:


(Michael - Don't expect miracles and you won't be disappointed.) #35

Here’s the link to the paper online.


(Bunny) #36

Fresh off the press (CNN) 19 hours ago (I guess your post is making head way? …lol)

Red and processed meat are OK to eat, controversial new guidelines claim. Don’t believe it, leading experts say